Treaties in Shadows: British Colonial Strategy in Creation of Saudi Kingdom


Muhammad Akmal Soomro,Mir Waheed Akhlaq


 This study examines the historical context and relationship between Ibn Saud and British Empire along with the implications of treaties. The paper also examines the planning of British Empire, how British strategically aligned with Ibn Saud to design the regional political landscape. The researcher also focuses the geopolitical changes in the Middle East after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. The study explores the Arab Movement which was primarily depended on Nationalism over Religion to weaken the unity of the Ottoman Empire. The special correspondence between Sharif Hussain bin Ali and Sir Henry McMahon, Secretary of Britian, provides insights into the assurance made to people of Arab for their future. The paper also highlights the secret agreements that helped Ibn Saud to be King of Mecca and Medina by replacing the Hashemite clan. Ibn Saud was selected to safeguard the strategic interests of British Empire in the region. This paper examines how Britain projected herself as a protector of Islam in the world, and this was mentioned in special correspondence. To portray, the protector of Islam was a strategy to get support of Arab people and consolidate the British influence in the Middle East against the Ottoman Empire. This research uncovers the relationship between British Empire and Ibn Saud. The researcher sheds the light on the diverse interplay, how treaties and agreements shaped the political landscape in the region. This paper also develops the relationship between Ibn Saud, geopolitical dynamics and Empire strategy, to enthrone the Ibn Saud as a next leader of the Muslim world.  The paper also highlighted how the colonial strategy of divide and rule was implemented to counter the local war lords and the rise of the Al Saud Family as new ruler in the Middle East. The Great Game was moving around the Russian influence in the region and finding the new ways in getting control over the natural resources of the region by installing the puppet rulers. By doing the study of historical documents, researcher established the geo-politics game of Empire to control the regional politics through the Ibn Saud Family. The clauses of two secret treaties between the empire and Ibn Saud is also examined thoroughly in the study.