The Effects of Parenting Styles on Child Development


Raheela Kausar,Usman Afaq


Parenting styles play a crucial role in shaping a child's psychological development and overall well-being. This literature review examines the impact of different parenting styles - authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved - on various aspects of child development. Research suggests that authoritative parenting, characterized by high levels of warmth and responsiveness combined with reasonable levels of control and discipline, is associated with positive outcomes such as higher self-esteem, better academic performance, and improved social skills in children. In contrast, authoritarian parenting, characterized by strict rules and high control without much warmth, may lead to higher levels of anxiety, lower self-esteem, and more rebellious behavior in children. Permissive parenting, with its lack of boundaries and high levels of warmth, is associated with lower academic achievement and difficulties in self-regulation among children. Lastly, uninvolved parenting, characterized by neglect and lack of emotional support, has been linked to various negative outcomes including poor academic performance, emotional issues, and behavior problems. Understanding the influence of different parenting styles on child development is essential for parents, educators, and mental health professionals in promoting healthy and positive growth in children.