CULTURAL AND LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY ISSUES IN ESL LEARNING TO PAKISTANI UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: WORLD ENGLISH PERSPECTIVE
The current article deals with the difficulties related to the cultural and linguistic diversity in ESL instructions in the Pakistani Universities. Using a framework that focuses on the influences on learning, the educational experiences of learners from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds are examined. We know that diversity is influencing everything and education is not out of that frame. The ESL teachers must be familiar with the current and upcoming changes in the socio-cultural firmament and linguistic patterns. In order to positively influence the academic success and learning processes of English second language learners, they must be educated, skilled in various areas of language coaching, as well as aware of the sociopolitical issues surrounding them and their own personal sociocultural consciousness (Greenfield, 2013). However, it is now strongly advised that more focus be given to cultural material besides other forms of diversity, cultural diversity is a crucial aspect of the acquisition process (Abu-Alyan, 2011). This essay focuses on how variation and its challenges are evident in the speech, learners’ level, cultural, and educational institutions themselves in ESL learning nations. Diversity does not exist without challenges. It resulted in the issues of modification, verbal placement, agreement, and pronoun placement for which teachers can play a good role to use multiple strategies to overcome these errors of ESL learners in Pakistan.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Abbas, F., Pervaiz, A., & Arshad, F. (2018). The competing status of Urdu and English after declaration of Urdu as official language in Pakistan. Journal of Research (Urdu), 34(1), 142-158.
Abbas, F., Rana, A. M. K., Bashir, I., & Bhatti, A. M. (2021). The English language proficiency as a global employment skill: the viewpoint of Pakistani academia. Humanities and Social Sciences Review, 9(3), 1071-1077.
Abu Alyan, A. (2011). Exploring teachers’ beliefs regarding the concepts of culture and intercultural communicative competence in EFL Palestinian university context: A case study.
Allison, S. R., & Vining, C. B. (1999). Native American culture and language. Bilingual Review, 24, 193-207.
Arche, M. J., Fábregas, A., & Marín, R. (Eds.). (2019). The grammar of copulas across languages (Vol. 73). Oxford University Press.
Aziz, A., Saleem, T., Maqsood, B., & Ameen, Z. (2020). Grammatical and Syntactical Functions of Auxiliaries in English and Urdu. Amazonia Investiga, 9(35), 34-50.
Bender, A., Beller, S., & Nersessian, N. J. (2015). Diversity as asset. Topics in Cognitive Science, 7(4), 677-688.
Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., and Finegan, E. (1999). Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow: Pearson Education.
Bunch, G. C. (2006). “Academic English” in the 7th grade: Broadening the lens, expanding access. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 5, 284-301.
Butt, M. I., & Rasul, S. (2012). Errors in the Writing of English at the Degree Level: Pakistani Teachers' Perspective. Language in India, Volume 12 : 9 September 2012 ISSN 1930-2940
Cai, G. (2004). Beyond bad writing: Teaching English composition to Chinese ESL students. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 364104)
Cummins, J. (1996). Negotiating identities: Education for empowerment in a diverse society. Ontario, CA: California Association for Bilingual Education.
Davies, R. J. (2003). Written discourse across cultures I: Towards an integrated approach to EL2 composition pedagogy. https://www.ed.ehime-u.ac.jp/~kiyou/0402/pdf36-2/5.pdf
Dickinson, D. K., Golinkoff, R. M., & Hirsh-Pasek, K. (2010). Speaking out for language: Why language is central to reading development. Educational Researcher, 39, 305–310.
Eastwood, J. (1994). Oxford Guide to English Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Eastwood, J. (2006). Oxford Learner’s Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Foley, R. A., & Mirazón Lahr, M. (2011). The evolution of the diversity of cultures. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1567), 1080-1089.
Freeman, D., & Johnson, K. E. (1998). Reconceptualizing the knowledge base of language teacher education. TESOL Quarterly, 32, 397-417.
Giunchiglia, F., Batsuren, K., & Bella, G. (2017, August). Understanding and Exploiting Language Diversity. In IJCAI (pp. 4009-4017).
Gleason, H. S. Jr., (1961). An Introduction to Descriptive Linguistics. New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing Company.
Greey, M. (1994). Honouring diversity: A cross-cultural approach to infant development for babies with special needs. Toronto: Centennial Infant and Child Centre.
Haidar, S. (2019). The role of English in developing countries: English is a passport to privilege and needed for survival in Pakistan. English Today, 35(3), 42-48.
Haidar, S., & Fang, F. (2019). Access to English in Pakistan: a source of prestige or a hindrance to success. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 39(4), 485-500.
Hassan, S. U., & Mahmood, M. (2014). Patterns of verb complementation in Pakistani English. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(25), 71-77.
Hauben, M. F. (1995). The netizens and community networks. URL: http://www. columbia. edu/~ hauben/text/bbc95soch. text.
Holmes, J., & Wilson, N. (2017). An introduction to sociolinguistics. Routledge.
Huang, J., & Morgan, G. (2003). A functional approach to evaluating content knowledge and language development in ESL students' science classification texts. International Journal of Applied Linguistics. 13, 234-262.
Hussain, Z., Hanif, M., Asif, S. I., &Rehman, A. U. (2013). An Error Analysis of L2 Writing at Higher Secondary Level in Multan, Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 4(11)
Huttenlocher, J., Waterfall, H., Vasilyeva, M., Vevea, J., & Hedges, L. V. (2010). Sources of variability in children’s language growth. Cognitive Psychology, 61, 343–365.
Jumaa, A. A. N. (2013). Dangling Modifiers in English. Alustath Journal for Human and Social Science, 2(205).
Kaplan, R. B. (1966). Cultural thought patterns in intercultural communication. Language Learning, 16, 1-20.
Kramsch, C. (1998). Language and Culture, OUP: Oxford.
Lado, R. (1957). Linguistics across Cultures. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (2003). Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lu, M. (1998). Language learning in social and cultural contexts. Eric Digest. Retrieved October 11, 2006 from http://www.ed.gov.databases/ERIC_Digests/ ed423531.html.
Mease, J. J., & Collins, B. L. (2018). Asset, liability, possibility: Metaphors of human difference and the business case for diversity. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal.
Merriam-Webster (1995). Merriam Webster’s dictionary of English Usage. Merriam – Webster, Incorporated, Springfield Publishers, Massachusetts, USA.
Morgan, P. L., Farkas, G., Hillemeier, M. M., Hammer, C. S., & Maczuga, S. (2015). 24-month-old children with larger oral vocabularies display greater academic and behavioral functioning at kindergarten entry. Child Development, 86, 1351–1370.
Moy, E. J. (1996). "punctuating punctuation in the English classroom". English teaching forum Vol 34 No 3, July - September 1996 Page 50
Mubagna, E. (2010). The nature and prevalence of reading and writing difficulties in grade two under the primary reading programme: The case of twelve basic schools in the Northern Province of Zambia. Retrieved from http://www.lolle nautafoundation.eu/.../ebbys-full-dissertation-revised-may-26-2010-23
National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project. (1996). Standards for foreign language learning: Preparing for the 21st century. Lawrence, KS: Author.
Ogden, C. K., & Richards, I. A. (1927). Meaning of meaning. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company.
Perez, B. (1998). Sociocultural contexts of language and literacy. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Quirk, R. and Greenbaum, S. (1973) A University Grammar of English. London: Longman.
Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., and Svartvik, J. (1985). A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman. Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., and Svartvik, J. (1972). A Grammar of Contemporary English. Harlow: Longman.
R. Greenfield, Perceptions of elementary teachers who educate linguistically diverse students, The Qualitative Report, 18(Article 94) (2013), 1-26.
Rafi, M. S. (2013). Urdu and English contact in an e-discourse: Changes and implications. Gomal university journal of research, 29(2).
Rasool, G., & Winke, P. (2019). Undergraduate students' motivation to learn and attitudes towards English in multilingual Pakistan: A look at shifts in English as a world language. System, 82, 50-62.
Rummel, K. (2005). How to write reader friendly texts: Common problems in the English academic writings of Estonian writers http://dspace.utlib.ee/dspace/bitstream/handle/10062/707/rummel.pdf?sequence=5
Saboor, A., & Khan, M. A. (2010, October). Lexical-semantic divergence in Urdu-to-English example based Machine Translation. In 2010 6th International Conference on Emerging Technologies (ICET) (pp. 316-320). IEEE.
Scarcella, R. (2003). Academic English: A Conceptual Framework. Santa Barbara. CA: University of California Linguistic Minority Research Institute.
Schleppegrell, M., Achugar, M., & Oteiza, T. (2004). The grammar of history: Enhancing content-based instruction through a functional focus on language. TESOL Quarterly, 38(1), 67-93.
Schwarzer, D., Haywood, A., & Lorenzen, C. (2003). Fostering multiliteracy in a linguistically diverse classroom. Language Arts, 80(6), 453-460.
Stevick, E. (1982). Teaching and learning languages. New York: Cambridge University Press Web-site: Center for Applied Linguistics: Definition of Terms. (2002) Retrieved October 12, 2006 from http://www.cal.org/
Suárez-Orozco, M. (2000). Everything you ever wanted to know about assimilation but were afraid to ask. Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 129(4), 1-30.
Taylor, L.S., & Whittaker, C.R. (2009). Bridging multiple worlds: Case studies of diverse educational communities (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson
Terry, N. P., & Irving, M. A. (2010). Cultural and linguistic diversity: Issues in education. Special education for all teachers, 5, 109-132.
Whorf, B. L. (1940). Science and linguistics. Technology Review, 42, 227-31, 247-8.
Wilson, P. and Glazier, F., Teresa (2008) .The Least You Should Know about English. Wadsworth Cengage Learning, Academic Resource Center, Boston; United States of America.