A Comparative Analysis of Heart of Darkness and Qalb-e-Zulmaat: A Study on the Application of Literal Translation Method


Faiz Ullah
Dr. Aftab Akram


This present qualitative study aims at identifying the applied literal translation method in the Urdu translation of Joseph Conrad's novel “Heart of Darkness” (Qalb-e-Zulmaat) to ensure the accuracy/faithfulness of the translation. In this textual analysis, the researcher examines excerpts from Joseph Conrad's "Heart of Darkness" and its Urdu translation, "Qalb-e-Zulmaat," with a concentration on the application of the literal translation method. The aim is to assess how well this method captures the essence of the original work and how it addresses linguistic and cultural challenges. The researchers concluded that the Literal translation by using Newmark theory (1988) is the source language grammatical forms that are converted to their nearest target language equivalent. In addition, the method compromises on an appropriate meaning. So, that no assonance, or repetition jars in the translation. Translation shift helps the researchers to get easier to describe how the process of translation can occur in both of source language (English) and the target language (Urdu). The result found that level shifts usually used by translators to translate the novel can be substantiated with the literal translation method. This research implies that students or researchers can know well about literal translation when used in novels, and can also be applied when the communication process needs to be translated.



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