Impact Of Instructional Supervision Of Academic Heads On Teaching Performance At Secondary Level


Ali Gauhar
Dr. Hakimullah
Dr. Farhad Ali


This study focused on the impact of Instructional Supervision by Academic Heads on Teaching Performance at Secondary level.  The study was conducted in District Malakand, KP.  The study was qualitative and case study design was adopted. All the secondary schools of District Malakand constituted the population of the study and GHSS ALLADHAND was selected as a sample through non probability convenient sampling. Self-developed checklist was used during observations for data collection. Data analysis was conducted by using tabulation and percentage method.  It was found that instructional supervision of academic heads had significant impact on the performance of teachers and teaching methodology of teachers. Based on the findings, updated trainings are recommended for instructional supervisors in order to understand the important task of instructional supervision in order to streamline the teaching learning process.



Abraham, N.M. (2012). Educational Administration in Nigeria, port Harcout: pam unique Publisher.
Abusson, (2007). Action learning in teacher learning community formation: Informative or transformative? Teacher Development. 11(2), 133-148.
Acheson, A.K & Gall. M.D. (1987). Techniques in the clinical supervision of Teacher, s New York: Longmcon publisher.
Alimi,O.S., & Akinfolarin, C.A. (2012). Impact of selected modes of instructional supervision activities on students’ academic performance in senior secondary schools in Ondo state, Nigeria. Education Research Journal. 2(1), 1-6.
Alsaleh, A. (2017). Impact of peer coaching strategy on pre-service teacher professional development growth in Kuwait. International of Educational Research 86, 36-49.
Ampofo,S.Y., Onyango, G.A., & Ogolo, M. (2019). Influence of school Heads direct supervision on teacher role of performance in public high school ,central region ,Ghana.LAFOR Journal of Education ,7(2) and Secondary School Students;2002-03 ND 2004 -05.(Report No NCES 2008-OO8).Retrieved from http;// 2008/2008 008.pdf Washigton ,DC; Government Printing Office.
Anyagre, J,T,Z, (2016). Examing the views of Teachers and head teachers on supervision and collective school management in contemporary Ghana. International Journal of innovative Research and Development, 5(10), 99-108.
Bays, D. A. (2001). Supervision of special education instruction in rural public school districts: A grounded theory. Published Doctoral Dissertation. Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Beach,DB & Reinhertz,J. (2000). Supervisory Leadership: Focus on Instruction . Toronto, ON; Allyn and Bacon.
Bemard,J.R., & Goodyear,K.M. (2009),Fundamental pf clinical supervision (4th ed.).New York.McGraw-Hill.1
Bhutto, J and Ramzan. M. (2021). “ENGLISH: Verses of Quran, Gender Issues, Feminine Injustice, and Media Transmission - CDA of Pakistani Press Reports”. Rahatulquloob 5 (2), 111-26.
Blase, J., Blase, J., & Philips, D.Y. (2010). Hand book of instruction leadership: How High performing principals create high performing schools. Thousands oaks, CA; corwin press.
Blumberg, A. (2013).Supervision and teachers: A private cold war .Berkeley: McCutchan
Brennen,A.M. (2008). Clinical supervision and case study .Retrieved from http;//www. soencouragement ,org/clinical-supervision-case-study. British Journal of Education ,4(3)40-52.
Brunelle, J, Drounin, D, Gobbout,p. Tousignant, M. (1988).Supervision of physical activity, intervention, Montreal: Gaetan Morin Publisher.
Cherry,K. (2016).What is instinct theory of motivation. How instinct motivate Behaviour.Retrieved from https.//www.very Theory of motivation-2795383.
Cogan,M.L. (1973).Clinical Supervision,Boston:Houghton Miffin.
Ekyaw, B.A. (2014).The practice and challenges of mstructional supervision in Asossa Zone primary school. (Unpublished doctoral thesis) Jimma University, Ethopia.
Eya, p.E. & leonard, c.c. (2012). Effective supervision of instructions in. Nigeria secondary schools: issues in quality assurance. Yaba_lagos: NERDC press
Gakuya, N. J. (2013). Influence of head teachers’ instructional supervision practices on students’ performance in mathematics in public secondary schools in Nyandarua south District, Kenya, (Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Nairobi, Nairobi.
Ghanney,R.R. (2008).The Use of Instructional materials in the Teaching and Learning of Enviromental Studies in Primary Schools: A Case Study of winneba .International Journal of Educational Research ,4(1),2008:135-140.
Glanz,J. (2010).Paradigm debates in curriculum and supervision .Modern and post-modern perspectives .West port ,CT;Bergin and carvin.
Glickman, D.C., Gordon,S.P., & Ross-Gordon.(2007). Supervision and instructional leadership: A development approach (7th ed), pearson Education, inc, Boston.
Govinda,R., Tapan,S. (1999).Quality education through school based supervision in promoting Teachers Professional Competence in West Gojjan Administrative Zone,Unpublished Master,s Thesis, Addis Ababa University.
Holland, P. E. (2004). Principals as supervisors: A balancing act. NASSP Bulletin, 88(3), 1-14. doi: 10.1177/019263650408863902.
James, F., & Massiah, A. (2019). Using clinical supervision as a profession development mechanism: capability concerns and challenges.
Joneshboro,T.F. (2013).Using clinical supervision to promote reflection and enquiry arnong pre-service teachers.Journal of Teacher Education ,2(1).1-14.
Komuji, M.M.A.,Khalid & Veloo,A. (2013).Performance of secondary school teachers .Precedos social and Behavioural science,93,35-39
Madziyire, N.C. (2013). Educational leadership and supervision. Harare University of Zimbabwe
Million Morki. (2010).An Assessment on status of School-Based Instructional Supervision in secondary school West Arsi zone of Oromia Region.
Murimba,S., & Moyo, A. (1993). Educational leadership and supervision, Harare: University of Zmbabwe.
Naci,M.K. (2012).Dictating or Faciltating:.The Supervisory process for Language Teachers .Australian journal of Teacher Education ,10(37,103-117).October 2012.
Nakpodia, E.D. (2011). An imperial Assessment of principal supervision capacity. Journal of Education and Technology, 15-24.
Ndeble, C. (2006). Supervisory styles in Bulilmangwe District, Harare: University of Zimbabwe.
Nolan, J.F., & Hoover, L.A. (2008). Teacher supervision and evaluation Theory in to practivce (2nd ed). Hoboken, NJ; wiley.
Okumbe, T. (2007). Educational management theory and practice, University of Nairobi press: Narobi.
Oyedeji,N.B. (2012).Supervision and standard of education Nigerian secondary schools. Retrieved September 18,2017, from World Wide Web.
Ozigo,W.A. (2000).Assessing the impact of education development of life expression survey. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology,48,252-321.
Pajak ,E. (2012) .Psychoanalysis ,teaching and Supervision .JOURNAL OF Curriculum and Supervision2,(7),28-99.
Ramzan, M. Javaid Z.K., Ali, A.A.,(2023).Perception of Students about Collaborative Strategies Employed by Teachers for Enhancing English Vocabulary and Learning Motivation. Pakistan Journal of Law, Analysis and Wisdom.Volume No. 2, Issue No. 2.
Ramzan, M., Javaid, Z. K., & Fatima, M. (2023). Empowering ESL Students: Harnessing the Potential of Social Media to Enhance Academic Motivation in Higher Education. Global Digital & Print Media Review, VI(II), 224-237
Ramzan, M., Bibi, R., & Khunsa, N. (2023). Unraveling the Link between Social Media Usage and Academic Achievement among ESL Learners: A Quantitative Analysis. Global. Educational Studies Review, VIII(II), 407-421.
Ramzan et al. (2021) POLITICS AS RHETORIC: A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF SELECTEDPAKISTANI POLITICIANS' PRESS STATEMENTS, Humanities & Social Sciences ReviewsVol 9, No 3, 2021, pp 1063-1070.
Ramzan, M., Azmat, Z., Khan. M.A. & Nisa, Z. (2023) Subject-Verb Agreement Errors in ESL Students' Academic Writing: A Surface Taxonomy Approach, MARS Publishers, Linguistic Forum, Volume 5, Issue 2, 2023 Pages 16-21.
Ramzan, M., Oteir, I., Khan, M. A., Al-Otaibi, A., & Malik, S. (2023). English learning motivation of ESL learners from ethnic, gender, and cultural perspectives in sustainable development goals. International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, 12(3), 195-212
Panigrahi, M. R. (2012). Implementation of instructional supervision in secondary school: approaches, prospects and problems. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal, 1(3): 59–67.
Peet,A.D., Cooke,L., Wright, B., Sylrain coderre,S., & Mclanghulin (2010).A prospective randomized trial of content expertise versus process expertise in small group teaching .BMC Medical Education ,10(70).http://www,bio med
Pool, W.L. (2014).Removing the ‘’Super’ ’from Supervision. Journal of Curriculum ND Supervision, 13(5), 12-13.
Rahabav, P. (2016). The Effectiveness of Academic Supervision for Teachers. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(9), 47-55.
Richard,K., & Willium,W. (2001).The conference category systems help supervisors analyse their conferences with teachers .Kent State. University, Ohio.
Segun, O. (2004). Educational supervision: perspective in Nigeria, University of Iie Ife, Iie Ife.
Sekyere, E.A. (2014). Teacher guide on typical issues for promotion and selection interviews for teachers and non teaching staff and general professional updates, Kumasi: Afosek Educational Consult.
Sergivanni, T.J., & Starrat,R.J. (2007). Supervision :a redefinition (8th Ed).New York;McGraw-Hill.
Servet,C. (2011).Characteristics and competencies for Teacher Educators :Addressing the need for improved Professional Standards .Turkey Australian Journal of Teacher Education.
Sintayehu Negash. (2011).The Practice and Problems of School Based Supervision in Secondary Schools of North Gondar Administrative zone. Unpublished Thesis. Bahirdar University. Faculty of Educational and Behavioral Sciences, Bahirdar.
Snow-Gerono,J.L. (2008).Locating supervision –A reflective framework for negotiating tensions withen conceptual and procedural foci for teacher development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24,1502=1515.
Sule, M. A., Eyiene, A., & Egbai, M. E. (2015). Instructional Supervisory Practices and Teachers' Role Effectiveness in Public Secondary Schools in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(23), 43-47.
Tshabalala,T. (2013).Teachers perception towards classroom instructional supervision :A case study of Nkayi District in Zimbabwe. International J.Soc.Sci. & Education, 4,Issue 1,25-32.
Wanzare, Z. (2011). Instructional supervision in public secondary schools in Kenya. Educational management administration and leadership, 40(2),188-216.
Wanzare, Z. (2011). Instructional supervision in public secondary schools in Kenya. Educational management administration and leadership, 40(2),188-216.
Wiles,J & Bondi,J. (2004). Supervision: A guide to practice (6th.ed.)Upper Saddle River,NJ: Pearson , Prentice Hall.
Yee,L.W. (2016).Peer coaching for improvement of teaching and learning ,Journal of inter disciplinary Research in Education ,6(1),64-70.
Zepeda, J.S. (2013).Instructional supervision: Apply tools and concepts, (3rd ed.). Routledge, New York.